By Hippolyte Dussauce
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Extra info for A General Treatise on the Manufacture of Vinegar: Theoretical and Practical
Some observers think that the old globules of lower yeast burst, and suspend in the liquor the granules they contain, each of which is then transformed into a globule, in which case the mode of generation of the lower must differ totally from that of the upper yeast. If the temperature be raised from 68° to 17°, the isolated globules of lower yeast are im- 64 KANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR. mediately developed by shoots, and then produce upper yeast. The action of the two kinds of yeast on solutions of sugar is also very different; upper yeast producing a much more active fermentation, with a copious evolution of carbonic acid, while the yeast is violently agitated in the liquid, and ascends to its surface; while, on the other hand, lower yeast acts much more slowly, and frequently requires two or three months to effect the complete transformation of sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid, the ferment being disturbed by no rapid movement, but, on the contrary, gently deposited at the bottom of the liquid.
ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES. 53 It crystallizes with difficulty, producing a compound crystallization, is less soluble in water than cane sugar, for it requires one and a half part of cold water to dissolve one of grape sugar. Its taste is less sweet. 40. Its solution turns the plane of polarization to the right. It softens at 140°, and is completely liquefied at 212°, at which temperature it loses 2 eqs. of water, and is converted into a new sugar, C1sH1S01S, which presents the composition of fruit sugar, although it continues to turn polarized light to the right.
In that reaction the acids undergo no change. Cane sugar combines with bases, and forms in certain cases crystallizable compounds called saccharates, the principal of which are the saccharates of baryta, BaO, C 12Hll0l1, two saccharates of lime, represented one by 3CaO,2(C12Hll0l1), and the other by CaO,CltH l1 Ol1, the saccharate of lead, 2PbO,C12HIOOIO. Concentrated sulphuric acid blackens cane sugar, and yields complicated products. Monohydrated nitric acid produces with sugar an insoluble and very combustible substance analogous to that obtained from starch.
A General Treatise on the Manufacture of Vinegar: Theoretical and Practical by Hippolyte Dussauce