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By Beck, David

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Like the tense markers, ka- immediately precedes the subject personprefixes on the verb, although unlike tense affixes, ka- can optionally be affixed to preverbal adverbs, as shown in (77): (77) a. ’ 46 b. ’ ta–paÓ… INCH–lie:2SUBJ:PFV It is not clear what, if any, difference in meaning there is between the two positions of ka-. To date no examples of ka- affixed to adverbs have been found when more than a single adverb is present, nor has ka- been found affixed to other pre-verbal elements such as the negative morpheme xa…; particles such as mat ‘QUOTATIVE’, tßu… ‘DESPECTATIVE’, or tßi: ‘how’; or the relative pronouns ti… and tu….

INC — — ka…musú…w 2PL kila…musú…w — ka…musu…tít 3PL kinka…tamusú…n ka…tamusún tamusú¬ Table 20: Class 1 perfective transitive forms (√musú… ‘kiss someone’) As in the Class 1 intransitive forms, the basic form of the perfective suffix in Table 20 is [-¬], most likely derived from the full form of the perfective suffix, [-liÔ], seen in the Class 2 forms, through two morphophonemic processes. The first of these is a process of syncope creating a closed final syllable. 4). The second process involved is a word-final devoicing process which applies — at least on the phonetic level — in a number of environments in UNT to vowels and approximants; this acts to change the now word-final [-l] to the voiceless [¬].

SUBJ:PFV ‘you hit us’ or ‘you guys hit us’ or ‘you guys hit me’ In the example in (63a) with first person subjects and second person objects, the form is that expected for the reading ‘I hit you guys’; in the second example in (b) with second person subjects and first person objects, the verb uses an idiosyncratic form involving the first-person object prefix and the reciprocal suffix la…-. Both of these verb forms are discussed in more detail in Beck (2001). 3. Indefinite actors In addition to the inflections for subjects illustrated above, UNT also has special inflections for verbs whose actors are indefinite, non-specific, or non-referential.

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A grammatical sketch of Upper Necaxa Totonac by Beck, David

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