By Charles Redman, David R. Foster
Agrarian Landscapes in Transition researches human interplay with the earth. With countless numbers of acres of agricultural land going out of creation on a daily basis, the creation, unfold, and abandonment of agriculture represents the main pervasive alteration of the Earth's atmosphere for numerous thousand years. What occurs whilst people impose their spatial and temporal signatures on ecological regimes, and the way does this manipulation impact the earth and nature's wish for equilibrium?Studies have been carried out at six long-term Ecological study websites in the US, together with New England, the Appalachian Mountains, Colorado, Michigan, Kansas, and Arizona. whereas each one website has its personal targeted agricultural heritage, styles emerge that assist in making feel of the way our activities have affected the earth, and the way the earth pushes again. The publication addresses how human actions impact the spatial and temporal constructions of agrarian landscapes, and the way this varies over the years and throughout biogeographic areas. It additionally seems to be on the ecological and environmental effects of the ensuing structural adjustments, the human responses to those adjustments, and the way those responses force additional alterations in agrarian landscapes.The time frames studied contain the ecology of the earth sooner than human interplay, pre-European human interplay through the upward thrust and fall of agricultural land use, and eventually the organic and cultural reaction to the abandonment of farming, as a result of entire abandonment or a land-use switch equivalent to urbanization.
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Additional info for Agrarian Landscapes in Transition: Comparisons of Long-Term Ecological & Cultural Change (Long-Term Ecological Research Network)
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In Europe, the struggle to sort out which land was ultimately marginal for agricultural purposes lasted centuries, and was complicated by social structures that concentrated the ownership of land in very few hands and restricted the movement of ordinary people (Moriceau, 2002; Pollard, 1997). In the United States, freehold tenures and family proprietorship established a common settlement vernacular across the interior of the continent. Less mediated by the state or wealthy landowning classes, the agrarian experience was freer to explore ecological niches and to monitor the response of upland, lowland, prairie, and plains to a small-grains complex brought by Europeans to the Americas.
These constraints were loosened as transportation improved during the 19th century. Long-distance trade began to shift agriculture to the interior of the continent. Farm populations did not immediately collapse in the east. Land no longer in farms has remained in private hands, with many more owners than in the agrarian past. During the late 20th century, the Harvard Forest, Coweeta, and increasingly Kellogg Biological Station regions share this trajectory. But signs of greater intensity are distinctly modern.
Agrarian Landscapes in Transition: Comparisons of Long-Term Ecological & Cultural Change (Long-Term Ecological Research Network) by Charles Redman, David R. Foster