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Hence, in his terms, there are physical necessity, logical necessity, mathematical necessity, and moral necessity. Once we understand what the mind is doing when it operates with these relationships, we will have understood the forms that all explanation takes, and hence the true significance of the principle of sufficient reason. Let us deal with the four kinds of relation in turn. By far the most substantial section of The Fourfold Root is devoted to the principle of causal explanation. An obvious class of objects the mind can grasp is that of the particular perceptible things that occupy space and time, and make up empirical reality.

Perceiving the world is the business of what he calls intellect or understanding, and he suggests that conceptual thinking and judgement play no part in this. On the other hand, manipulating concepts to form judgements, relating judgements to one another as premiss and conclusion, and so on, is the business of what he calls reason. By playing down the significance of reason and treating concepts as more or less faint abstractions out of direct experience or intuition, Schopenhauer paves the way for a close assimilation between the human mind and that of other living creatures.

They may be grounded in another judgement, as when we argue, conclude, or infer (R, 157 8) from one truth to another. They may, on the other hand, be empirical truths , grounded not in another judgement, but in experience. For example, our judgement There is snow on the trees may have its justification in the evidence of our senses. On the other hand in the syllogism There is snow on the trees. Snow is a white substance. Therefore, there is a white substance on the trees. the truth of the final judgement is grounded simply in the truths of the two premisses.

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An Introduction to Differentiable Manifolds and Riemannian Geom. by W. Boothby


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